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// Basic x86 asm functions and function defs.
// Copyright (C) 2008,2009 Kevin O'Connor <>
// This file may be distributed under the terms of the GNU LGPLv3 license.
#ifndef __UTIL_H
#define __UTIL_H
#include "types.h" // u32
static inline void irq_disable(void)
asm volatile("cli": : :"memory");
static inline void irq_enable(void)
asm volatile("sti": : :"memory");
static inline unsigned long irq_save(void)
unsigned long flags;
asm volatile("pushfl ; popl %0" : "=g" (flags));
return flags;
static inline void irq_restore(unsigned long flags)
asm volatile("pushl %0 ; popfl" : : "g" (flags) : "memory", "cc");
static inline void cpu_relax(void)
asm volatile("rep ; nop": : :"memory");
// Atomically enable irqs and sleep until an irq; then re-disable irqs.
static inline void wait_irq(void)
asm volatile("sti ; hlt ; cli ; cld": : :"memory");
static inline void nop(void)
asm volatile("nop");
static inline void hlt(void)
asm volatile("hlt");
static inline void wbinvd(void)
asm volatile("wbinvd");
#define CPUID_MSR (1 << 5)
#define CPUID_APIC (1 << 9)
#define CPUID_MTRR (1 << 12)
static inline void cpuid(u32 index, u32 *eax, u32 *ebx, u32 *ecx, u32 *edx)
: "=a" (*eax), "=b" (*ebx), "=c" (*ecx), "=d" (*edx)
: "0" (index));
static inline u64 rdmsr(u32 index)
u64 ret;
asm ("rdmsr" : "=A"(ret) : "c"(index));
return ret;
static inline void wrmsr(u32 index, u64 val)
asm volatile ("wrmsr" : : "c"(index), "A"(val));
static inline u64 rdtscll(void)
u64 val;
asm volatile("rdtsc" : "=A" (val));
return val;
static inline u32 __ffs(u32 word)
asm("bsf %1,%0"
: "=r" (word)
: "rm" (word));
return word;
static inline u32 __fls(u32 word)
asm("bsr %1,%0"
: "=r" (word)
: "rm" (word));
return word;
static inline void writel(void *addr, u32 val) {
*(volatile u32 *)addr = val;
static inline void writew(void *addr, u16 val) {
*(volatile u16 *)addr = val;
static inline void writeb(void *addr, u8 val) {
*(volatile u8 *)addr = val;
static inline u32 readl(const void *addr) {
return *(volatile const u32 *)addr;
static inline u16 readw(const void *addr) {
return *(volatile const u16 *)addr;
static inline u8 readb(const void *addr) {
return *(volatile const u8 *)addr;
// GDT bit manipulation
#define GDT_BASE(v) ((((u64)(v) & 0xff000000) << 32) \
| (((u64)(v) & 0x00ffffff) << 16))
#define GDT_LIMIT(v) ((((u64)(v) & 0x000f0000) << 32) \
| (((u64)(v) & 0x0000ffff) << 0))
#define GDT_CODE (0x9bULL << 40) // Code segment - P,R,A bits also set
#define GDT_DATA (0x93ULL << 40) // Data segment - W,A bits also set
#define GDT_B (0x1ULL << 54) // Big flag
#define GDT_G (0x1ULL << 55) // Granularity flag
#define call16_simpint(nr, peax, pflags) do { \
ASSERT16(); \
asm volatile( \
"stc\n" \
"int %2\n" \
"pushfl\n" \
"popl %1\n" \
"cli\n" \
"cld" \
: "+a"(*peax), "=r"(*pflags) \
: "i"(nr) \
: "cc", "memory"); \
} while (0)
// util.c
inline u32 stack_hop(u32 eax, u32 edx, u32 ecx, void *func);
extern struct thread_info MainThread;
void thread_setup();
struct thread_info *getCurThread();
void run_thread(void (*func)(void*), void *data);
void wait_threads();
u8 checksum_far(u16 buf_seg, void *buf_far, u32 len);
u8 checksum(void *buf, u32 len);
int memcmp(const void *s1, const void *s2, size_t n);
size_t strlen(const char *s);
int strcmp(const char *s1, const char *s2);
inline void memset_far(u16 d_seg, void *d_far, u8 c, size_t len);
inline void memset16_far(u16 d_seg, void *d_far, u16 c, size_t len);
void *memset(void *s, int c, size_t n);
void *memcpy(void *d1, const void *s1, size_t len);
#if MODE16 == 0
#define memcpy __builtin_memcpy
inline void memcpy_far(u16 d_seg, void *d_far
, u16 s_seg, const void *s_far, size_t len);
void iomemcpy(void *d, const void *s, u32 len);
void *memmove(void *d, const void *s, size_t len);
char *strtcpy(char *dest, const char *src, size_t len);
struct bregs;
inline void call16(struct bregs *callregs);
inline void call16big(struct bregs *callregs);
inline void __call16_int(struct bregs *callregs, u16 offset);
#define call16_int(nr, callregs) do { \
extern void irq_trampoline_ ##nr (); \
__call16_int((callregs), (u32)&irq_trampoline_ ##nr ); \
} while (0)
void yield();
void biosusleep(u32 usec);
int get_keystroke(int msec);
// output.c
void debug_serial_setup();
void panic(const char *fmt, ...)
__attribute__ ((format (printf, 1, 2)))
__attribute__ ((noreturn));
void printf(const char *fmt, ...)
__attribute__ ((format (printf, 1, 2)));
void __dprintf(const char *fmt, ...)
__attribute__ ((format (printf, 1, 2)));
int snprintf(char *str, size_t size, const char *fmt, ...)
__attribute__ ((format (printf, 3, 4)));
#define dprintf(lvl, fmt, args...) do { \
__dprintf((fmt) , ##args ); \
} while (0)
void __debug_enter(struct bregs *regs, const char *fname);
void __debug_stub(struct bregs *regs, int lineno, const char *fname);
void __debug_isr(const char *fname);
#define debug_enter(regs, lvl) do { \
if ((lvl) && (lvl) <= CONFIG_DEBUG_LEVEL) \
__debug_enter((regs), __func__); \
} while (0)
#define debug_isr(lvl) do { \
if ((lvl) && (lvl) <= CONFIG_DEBUG_LEVEL) \
__debug_isr(__func__); \
} while (0)
#define debug_stub(regs) \
__debug_stub((regs), __LINE__, __func__)
void hexdump(const void *d, int len);
// kbd.c
void kbd_setup();
void handle_15c2(struct bregs *regs);
void process_key(u8 key);
// mouse.c
void mouse_setup();
void process_mouse(u8 data);
// system.c
extern u32 RamSize;
extern u64 RamSizeOver4G;
void mathcp_setup();
// serial.c
void serial_setup();
void lpt_setup();
// clock.c
static inline int check_time(u64 end) {
return (s64)(rdtscll() - end) > 0;
void timer_setup();
void ndelay(u32 count);
void udelay(u32 count);
void mdelay(u32 count);
void nsleep(u32 count);
void usleep(u32 count);
void msleep(u32 count);
u64 calc_future_tsc(u32 msecs);
u64 calc_future_tsc_usec(u32 usecs);
void handle_1583(struct bregs *regs);
void handle_1586(struct bregs *regs);
// apm.c
void VISIBLE16 handle_1553(struct bregs *regs);
// pcibios.c
void handle_1ab1(struct bregs *regs);
// shadow.c
void make_bios_writable();
void make_bios_readonly();
// pciinit.c
void pci_setup(void);
// smm.c
void smm_init();
// smp.c
extern u32 CountCPUs;
extern u32 MaxCountCPUs;
void wrmsr_smp(u32 index, u64 val);
void smp_probe(void);
void smp_probe_setup(void);
// coreboot.c
struct cbfs_file;
struct cbfs_file *cbfs_findprefix(const char *prefix, struct cbfs_file *last);
u32 cbfs_datasize(struct cbfs_file *file);
const char *cbfs_filename(struct cbfs_file *file);
int cbfs_copyfile(struct cbfs_file *file, void *dst, u32 maxlen);
int cbfs_copy_optionrom(void *dst, u32 maxlen, u32 vendev);
void cbfs_run_payload(struct cbfs_file *file);
void coreboot_copy_biostable();
void coreboot_setup();
// vgahooks.c
extern int VGAbdf;
void handle_155f();
void vgahook_setup(const char *vendor, const char *part);
// optionroms.c
void call_bcv(u16 seg, u16 ip);
void optionrom_setup();
void vga_setup();
void s3_resume_vga_init();
extern u32 RomEnd;
// resume.c
void init_dma();
// pnpbios.c
#define PNP_SIGNATURE 0x506e5024 // $PnP
u16 get_pnp_offset();
void pnp_setup();
// pmm.c
extern struct zone_s ZoneLow, ZoneHigh, ZoneFSeg, ZoneTmpLow, ZoneTmpHigh;
void malloc_setup();
void malloc_finalize();
void *pmm_malloc(struct zone_s *zone, u32 handle, u32 size, u32 align);
int pmm_free(void *data);
void pmm_setup();
void pmm_finalize();
// Minimum alignment of malloc'd memory
// Helper functions for memory allocation.
static inline void *malloc_low(u32 size) {
return pmm_malloc(&ZoneLow, PMM_DEFAULT_HANDLE, size, MALLOC_MIN_ALIGN);
static inline void *malloc_high(u32 size) {
return pmm_malloc(&ZoneHigh, PMM_DEFAULT_HANDLE, size, MALLOC_MIN_ALIGN);
static inline void *malloc_fseg(u32 size) {
return pmm_malloc(&ZoneFSeg, PMM_DEFAULT_HANDLE, size, MALLOC_MIN_ALIGN);
static inline void *malloc_tmphigh(u32 size) {
return pmm_malloc(&ZoneTmpHigh, PMM_DEFAULT_HANDLE, size, MALLOC_MIN_ALIGN);
static inline void *memalign_low(u32 align, u32 size) {
return pmm_malloc(&ZoneLow, PMM_DEFAULT_HANDLE, size, align);
static inline void *memalign_high(u32 align, u32 size) {
return pmm_malloc(&ZoneHigh, PMM_DEFAULT_HANDLE, size, align);
static inline void *memalign_tmphigh(u32 align, u32 size) {
return pmm_malloc(&ZoneTmpHigh, PMM_DEFAULT_HANDLE, size, align);
static inline void free(void *data) {
// mtrr.c
void mtrr_setup(void);
// romlayout.S
void reset_vector() __attribute__ ((noreturn));
// misc.c
extern u8 BiosChecksum;
// version (auto generated file out/version.c)
extern const char VERSION[];
#endif // util.h