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* This file is part of the flashrom project.
* Copyright (C) 2000 Silicon Integrated System Corporation
* Copyright (C) 2000 Ronald G. Minnich <>
* Copyright (C) 2005-2009 coresystems GmbH
* Copyright (C) 2006-2009 Carl-Daniel Hailfinger
* This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
* the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
* (at your option) any later version.
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* GNU General Public License for more details.
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
* Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
#ifndef __FLASH_H__
#define __FLASH_H__ 1
#include "platform.h"
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <windows.h>
#undef min
#undef max
#define ERROR_PTR ((void*)-1)
/* Error codes */
#define ERROR_OOM -100
#define TIMEOUT_ERROR -101
/* TODO: check using code for correct usage of types */
typedef uintptr_t chipaddr;
#define PRIxPTR_WIDTH ((int)(sizeof(uintptr_t)*2))
/* Types and macros regarding the maximum flash space size supported by generic code. */
typedef uint32_t chipoff_t; /* Able to store any addressable offset within a supported flash memory. */
typedef uint32_t chipsize_t; /* Able to store the number of bytes of any supported flash memory. */
#define FL_MAX_CHIPOFF_BITS (24)
#define FL_MAX_CHIPOFF ((chipoff_t)(1ULL<<FL_MAX_CHIPOFF_BITS)-1)
#define PRIxCHIPOFF "06"PRIx32
int register_shutdown(int (*function) (void *data), void *data);
int shutdown_free(void *data);
void *programmer_map_flash_region(const char *descr, uintptr_t phys_addr, size_t len);
void programmer_unmap_flash_region(void *virt_addr, size_t len);
void programmer_delay(unsigned int usecs);
#define ARRAY_SIZE(a) (sizeof(a) / sizeof((a)[0]))
enum chipbustype {
BUS_PARALLEL = 1 << 0,
BUS_LPC = 1 << 1,
BUS_FWH = 1 << 2,
BUS_SPI = 1 << 3,
BUS_PROG = 1 << 4,
* The following enum defines possible write granularities of flash chips. These tend to reflect the properties
* of the actual hardware not necesserily the write function(s) defined by the respective struct flashchip.
* The latter might (and should) be more precisely specified, e.g. they might bail out early if their execution
* would result in undefined chip contents.
enum write_granularity {
/* We assume 256 byte granularity by default. */
write_gran_256bytes = 0,/* If less than 256 bytes are written, the unwritten bytes are undefined. */
write_gran_1bit, /* Each bit can be cleared individually. */
write_gran_1byte, /* A byte can be written once. Further writes to an already written byte cause
* its contents to be either undefined or to stay unchanged. */
write_gran_264bytes, /* If less than 264 bytes are written, the unwritten bytes are undefined. */
write_gran_512bytes, /* If less than 512 bytes are written, the unwritten bytes are undefined. */
write_gran_528bytes, /* If less than 528 bytes are written, the unwritten bytes are undefined. */
write_gran_1024bytes, /* If less than 1024 bytes are written, the unwritten bytes are undefined. */
write_gran_1056bytes, /* If less than 1056 bytes are written, the unwritten bytes are undefined. */
write_gran_1byte_implicit_erase, /* EEPROMs and other chips with implicit erase and 1-byte writes. */
* How many different contiguous runs of erase blocks with one size each do
* we have for a given erase function?
* How many different erase functions do we have per chip?
* Atmel AT25FS010 has 6 different functions.
/* Feature bits used for non-SPI only */
#define FEATURE_REGISTERMAP (1 << 0)
#define FEATURE_BYTEWRITES (1 << 1)
#define FEATURE_LONG_RESET (0 << 4)
#define FEATURE_SHORT_RESET (1 << 4)
#define FEATURE_ADDR_FULL (0 << 2)
#define FEATURE_ADDR_MASK (3 << 2)
#define FEATURE_ADDR_2AA (1 << 2)
#define FEATURE_ADDR_AAA (2 << 2)
#define FEATURE_ADDR_SHIFTED (1 << 5)
/* Feature bits used for SPI only */
#define FEATURE_WRSR_EWSR (1 << 6)
#define FEATURE_WRSR_WREN (1 << 7)
#define FEATURE_OTP (1 << 8)
#define FEATURE_QPI (1 << 9)
enum test_state {
OK = 0,
NT = 1, /* Not tested */
BAD, /* Known to not work */
DEP, /* Support depends on configuration (e.g. Intel flash descriptor) */
NA, /* Not applicable (e.g. write support on ROM chips) */
#define TEST_UNTESTED (struct tested){ .probe = NT, .read = NT, .erase = NT, .write = NT }
#define TEST_OK_PROBE (struct tested){ .probe = OK, .read = NT, .erase = NT, .write = NT }
#define TEST_OK_PR (struct tested){ .probe = OK, .read = OK, .erase = NT, .write = NT }
#define TEST_OK_PRE (struct tested){ .probe = OK, .read = OK, .erase = OK, .write = NT }
#define TEST_OK_PREW (struct tested){ .probe = OK, .read = OK, .erase = OK, .write = OK }
#define TEST_BAD_PROBE (struct tested){ .probe = BAD, .read = NT, .erase = NT, .write = NT }
#define TEST_BAD_PR (struct tested){ .probe = BAD, .read = BAD, .erase = NT, .write = NT }
#define TEST_BAD_PRE (struct tested){ .probe = BAD, .read = BAD, .erase = BAD, .write = NT }
#define TEST_BAD_PREW (struct tested){ .probe = BAD, .read = BAD, .erase = BAD, .write = BAD }
struct flashctx;
typedef int (erasefunc_t)(struct flashctx *flash, unsigned int addr, unsigned int blocklen);
struct flashchip {
const char *vendor;
const char *name;
enum chipbustype bustype;
* With 32bit manufacture_id and model_id we can cover IDs up to
* (including) the 4th bank of JEDEC JEP106W Standard Manufacturer's
* Identification code.
uint32_t manufacture_id;
uint32_t model_id;
/* Total chip size in kilobytes */
unsigned int total_size;
/* Chip page size in bytes */
unsigned int page_size;
int feature_bits;
/* Indicate how well flashrom supports different operations of this flash chip. */
struct tested {
enum test_state probe;
enum test_state read;
enum test_state erase;
enum test_state write;
} tested;
int (*probe) (struct flashctx *flash);
/* Delay after "enter/exit ID mode" commands in microseconds.
* NB: negative values have special meanings, see TIMING_* below.
signed int probe_timing;
* Erase blocks and associated erase function. Any chip erase function
* is stored as chip-sized virtual block together with said function.
* The first one that fits will be chosen. There is currently no way to
* influence that behaviour. For testing just comment out the other
* elements or set the function pointer to NULL.
struct block_eraser {
struct eraseblock {
unsigned int size; /* Eraseblock size in bytes */
unsigned int count; /* Number of contiguous blocks with that size */
} eraseblocks[NUM_ERASEREGIONS];
/* a block_erase function should try to erase one block of size
* 'blocklen' at address 'blockaddr' and return 0 on success. */
int (*block_erase) (struct flashctx *flash, unsigned int blockaddr, unsigned int blocklen);
} block_erasers[NUM_ERASEFUNCTIONS];
int (*printlock) (struct flashctx *flash);
int (*unlock) (struct flashctx *flash);
int (*write) (struct flashctx *flash, const uint8_t *buf, unsigned int start, unsigned int len);
int (*read) (struct flashctx *flash, uint8_t *buf, unsigned int start, unsigned int len);
struct voltage {
uint16_t min;
uint16_t max;
} voltage;
enum write_granularity gran;
struct flashctx {
struct flashchip *chip;
/* FIXME: The memory mappings should be saved in a more structured way. */
/* The physical_* fields store the respective addresses in the physical address space of the CPU. */
uintptr_t physical_memory;
/* The virtual_* fields store where the respective physical address is mapped into flashrom's address
* space. A value equivalent to (chipaddr)ERROR_PTR indicates an invalid mapping (or none at all). */
chipaddr virtual_memory;
/* Some flash devices have an additional register space; semantics are like above. */
uintptr_t physical_registers;
chipaddr virtual_registers;
struct registered_master *mst;
/* Timing used in probe routines. ZERO is -2 to differentiate between an unset
* field and zero delay.
* SPI devices will always have zero delay and ignore this field.
#define TIMING_FIXME -1
/* this is intentionally same value as fixme */
#define TIMING_ZERO -2
extern const struct flashchip flashchips[];
extern const unsigned int flashchips_size;
void chip_writeb(const struct flashctx *flash, uint8_t val, chipaddr addr);
void chip_writew(const struct flashctx *flash, uint16_t val, chipaddr addr);
void chip_writel(const struct flashctx *flash, uint32_t val, chipaddr addr);
void chip_writen(const struct flashctx *flash, const uint8_t *buf, chipaddr addr, size_t len);
uint8_t chip_readb(const struct flashctx *flash, const chipaddr addr);
uint16_t chip_readw(const struct flashctx *flash, const chipaddr addr);
uint32_t chip_readl(const struct flashctx *flash, const chipaddr addr);
void chip_readn(const struct flashctx *flash, uint8_t *buf, const chipaddr addr, size_t len);
/* print.c */
int print_supported(void);
void print_supported_wiki(void);
/* helpers.c */
uint32_t address_to_bits(uint32_t addr);
int bitcount(unsigned long a);
int max(int a, int b);
int min(int a, int b);
char *strcat_realloc(char *dest, const char *src);
void tolower_string(char *str);
#ifdef __MINGW32__
char* strtok_r(char *str, const char *delim, char **nextp);
#if defined(__DJGPP__)
size_t strnlen(const char *str, size_t n);
/* flashrom.c */
extern const char flashrom_version[];
extern const char *chip_to_probe;
int map_flash(struct flashctx *flash);
void unmap_flash(struct flashctx *flash);
int read_memmapped(struct flashctx *flash, uint8_t *buf, unsigned int start, unsigned int len);
int erase_flash(struct flashctx *flash);
int probe_flash(struct registered_master *mst, int startchip, struct flashctx *fill_flash, int force);
int read_flash_to_file(struct flashctx *flash, const char *filename);
char *extract_param(const char *const *haystack, const char *needle, const char *delim);
int verify_range(struct flashctx *flash, const uint8_t *cmpbuf, unsigned int start, unsigned int len);
int need_erase(const uint8_t *have, const uint8_t *want, unsigned int len, enum write_granularity gran);
void print_version(void);
void print_buildinfo(void);
void print_banner(void);
void list_programmers_linebreak(int startcol, int cols, int paren);
int selfcheck(void);
int doit(struct flashctx *flash, int force, const char *filename, int read_it, int write_it, int erase_it, int verify_it);
int read_buf_from_file(unsigned char *buf, unsigned long size, const char *filename);
int write_buf_to_file(const unsigned char *buf, unsigned long size, const char *filename);
/* Something happened that shouldn't happen, but we can go on. */
#define ERROR_NONFATAL 0x100
/* Something happened that shouldn't happen, we'll abort. */
#define ERROR_FATAL -0xee
/* We reached one of the hardcoded limits of flashrom. This can be fixed by
* increasing the limit of a compile-time allocation or by switching to dynamic
* allocation.
* Note: If this warning is triggered, check first for runaway registrations.
/* cli_common.c */
char *flashbuses_to_text(enum chipbustype bustype);
void print_chip_support_status(const struct flashchip *chip);
/* cli_output.c */
extern int verbose_screen;
extern int verbose_logfile;
int open_logfile(const char * const filename);
int close_logfile(void);
void start_logging(void);
enum msglevel {
/* Let gcc and clang check for correct printf-style format strings. */
int print(enum msglevel level, const char *fmt, ...)
#ifdef __MINGW32__
__attribute__((format(gnu_printf, 2, 3)));
__attribute__((format(printf, 2, 3)));
#define msg_gerr(...) print(MSG_ERROR, __VA_ARGS__) /* general errors */
#define msg_perr(...) print(MSG_ERROR, __VA_ARGS__) /* programmer errors */
#define msg_cerr(...) print(MSG_ERROR, __VA_ARGS__) /* chip errors */
#define msg_gwarn(...) print(MSG_WARN, __VA_ARGS__) /* general warnings */
#define msg_pwarn(...) print(MSG_WARN, __VA_ARGS__) /* programmer warnings */
#define msg_cwarn(...) print(MSG_WARN, __VA_ARGS__) /* chip warnings */
#define msg_ginfo(...) print(MSG_INFO, __VA_ARGS__) /* general info */
#define msg_pinfo(...) print(MSG_INFO, __VA_ARGS__) /* programmer info */
#define msg_cinfo(...) print(MSG_INFO, __VA_ARGS__) /* chip info */
#define msg_gdbg(...) print(MSG_DEBUG, __VA_ARGS__) /* general debug */
#define msg_pdbg(...) print(MSG_DEBUG, __VA_ARGS__) /* programmer debug */
#define msg_cdbg(...) print(MSG_DEBUG, __VA_ARGS__) /* chip debug */
#define msg_gdbg2(...) print(MSG_DEBUG2, __VA_ARGS__) /* general debug2 */
#define msg_pdbg2(...) print(MSG_DEBUG2, __VA_ARGS__) /* programmer debug2 */
#define msg_cdbg2(...) print(MSG_DEBUG2, __VA_ARGS__) /* chip debug2 */
#define msg_gspew(...) print(MSG_SPEW, __VA_ARGS__) /* general debug spew */
#define msg_pspew(...) print(MSG_SPEW, __VA_ARGS__) /* programmer debug spew */
#define msg_cspew(...) print(MSG_SPEW, __VA_ARGS__) /* chip debug spew */
/* layout.c */
int register_include_arg(char *name);
int process_include_args(void);
int read_romlayout(const char *name);
int normalize_romentries(const struct flashctx *flash);
int build_new_image(struct flashctx *flash, bool oldcontents_valid, uint8_t *oldcontents, uint8_t *newcontents);
void layout_cleanup(void);
/* spi.c */
struct spi_command {
unsigned int writecnt;
unsigned int readcnt;
const unsigned char *writearr;
unsigned char *readarr;
int spi_send_command(struct flashctx *flash, unsigned int writecnt, unsigned int readcnt, const unsigned char *writearr, unsigned char *readarr);
int spi_send_multicommand(struct flashctx *flash, struct spi_command *cmds);
uint32_t spi_get_valid_read_addr(struct flashctx *flash);
enum chipbustype get_buses_supported(void);
#endif /* !__FLASH_H__ */