Documentation/acpi: Add new document on adding ACPI devices to devicetree

Change-Id: I9636e65f7d2499b06b1d71e5f8d09c528b850027
Signed-off-by: Tim Wawrzynczak <twawrzynczak@chromium.org>
Reviewed-on: https://review.coreboot.org/c/coreboot/+/35080
Tested-by: build bot (Jenkins) <no-reply@coreboot.org>
Reviewed-by: Paul Menzel <paulepanter@users.sourceforge.net>
Reviewed-by: Duncan Laurie <dlaurie@chromium.org>
Reviewed-by: Furquan Shaikh <furquan@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Karthik Ramasubramanian <kramasub@google.com>
diff --git a/Documentation/acpi/devicetree.md b/Documentation/acpi/devicetree.md
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+# Adding new devices to a device tree
+
+## Introduction
+
+ACPI exposes a platform-independent interface for operating systems to perform
+power management and other platform-level functions.  Some operating systems
+also use ACPI to enumerate devices that are not immediately discoverable, such
+as those behind I2C or SPI busses (in contrast to PCI).  This document discusses
+the way that coreboot uses the concept of a "device tree" to generate ACPI
+tables for usage by the operating system.
+
+## Devicetree and overridetree (if applicable)
+
+For mainboards that are organized around a "reference board" or "baseboard"
+model (see ``src/mainboard/google/octopus`` or ``hatch`` for examples), there is
+typically a devicetree.cb file that all boards share, and any differences for a
+specific board ("variant") are captured in the overridetree.cb file.  Any
+settings changed in the overridetree take precedence over those in the main
+devicetree.  Note, not all mainboards will have the devicetree/overridetree
+distinction, and may only have a devicetree.cb file.  Or you can always just
+write the ASL (ACPI Source Language) code yourself.
+
+## Device drivers
+
+Let's take a look at an example entry from
+``src/mainboard/google/hatch/variant/hatch/overridetree.cb``:
+
+```
+device pci 15.0 on
+	chip drivers/i2c/generic
+		register "hid" = ""ELAN0000""
+		register "desc" = ""ELAN Touchpad""
+		register "irq" = "ACPI_IRQ_WAKE_EDGE_LOW(GPP_A21_IRQ)"
+		register "wake" = "GPE0_DW0_21"
+		device i2c 15 on end
+	end
+end # I2C #0
+```
+
+When this entry is processed during ramstage, it will create a device in the
+ACPI SSDT table (all devices in devicetrees end up in the SSDT table).  The ACPI
+generation routines in coreboot actually generate the raw bytecode that
+represents the device's structure, but looking at ASL code is easier to
+understand; see below for what the disassembled bytecode looks like:
+
+```
+Scope (\_SB.PCI0.I2C0)
+{
+    Device (D015)
+    {
+        Name (_HID, "ELAN0000")  // _HID: Hardware ID
+        Name (_UID, Zero)  // _UID: Unique ID
+        Name (_DDN, "ELAN Touchpad")  // _DDN: DOS Device Name
+        Method (_STA, 0, NotSerialized)  // _STA: Status
+        {
+            Return (0x0F)
+        }
+        Name (_CRS, ResourceTemplate ()  // _CRS: Current Resource Settings
+        {
+            I2cSerialBusV2 (0x0015, ControllerInitiated, 400000,
+                AddressingMode7Bit, "\\_SB.PCI0.I2C0",
+                0x00, ResourceConsumer, , Exclusive, )
+            Interrupt (ResourceConsumer, Edge, ActiveLow, ExclusiveAndWake, ,, )
+            {
+                0x0000002D,
+            }
+        })
+        Name (_S0W, 0x04)  // _S0W: S0 Device Wake State
+        Name (_PRW, Package (0x02)  // _PRW: Power Resources for Wake
+        {
+            0x15, // GPE #21
+            0x03  // Sleep state S3
+        })
+    }
+}
+```
+
+You can see it generates _HID, _UID, _DDN, _STA, _CRS, _S0W, and _PRW
+names/methods in the Device's scope.
+
+## Utilizing a device driver
+
+The device driver must be enabled for your build.  There will be a CONFIG option
+in the Kconfig file in the directory that the driver is in (e.g.,
+``src/drivers/i2c/generic`` contains a Kconfig file; the option here is named
+CONFIG_DRIVERS_I2C_GENERIC).  The config option will need to be added to your
+mainboard's Kconfig file (e.g., ``src/mainboard/google/hatch/Kconfig``) in order
+to be compiled into your build.
+
+## Diving into the above example:
+
+Let's take a look at how the devicetree language corresponds to the generated
+ASL.
+
+First, note this:
+
+```
+    chip drivers/i2c/generic
+```
+
+This means that the device driver we're using has a corresponding structure,
+located at ``src/drivers/i2c/generic/chip.h``, named **struct
+drivers_i2c_generic_config** and it contains many properties you can specify to
+be included in the ACPI table.
+
+### hid
+
+```
+    register "hid" = ""ELAN0000""
+```
+
+This corresponds to **const char *hid** in the struct.  In the ACPI ASL, it
+translates to:
+
+```
+    Name (_HID, "ELAN0000") // _HID: Hardware ID
+```
+
+under the device.  **This property is used to match the device to its driver
+during enumeration in the OS.**
+
+### desc
+
+```
+    register "desc" = ""ELAN Touchpad""
+```
+
+corresponds to **const char *desc** and in ASL:
+
+```
+    Name (_DDN, "ELAN Touchpad") // _DDN: DOS Device Name
+```
+
+### irq
+
+It also adds the interrupt,
+
+```
+    Interrupt (ResourceConsumer, Edge, ActiveLow, ExclusiveAndWake, ,, )
+    {
+        0x0000002D,
+    }
+```
+
+which comes from:
+
+```
+    register "irq" = "ACPI_IRQ_WAKE_EDGE_LOW(GPP_A21_IRQ)"
+```
+
+The GPIO pin IRQ settings control the "Edge", "ActiveLow", and
+"ExclusiveAndWake" settings seen above (edge means it is an edge-triggered
+interrupt as opposed to level-triggered; active low means the interrupt is
+triggered on a falling edge).
+
+Note that the ACPI_IRQ_WAKE_EDGE_LOW macro informs the platform that the GPIO
+will be routed through SCI (ACPI's System Control Interrupt) for use as a wake
+source.  Also note that the IRQ names are SoC-specific, and you will need to
+find the names in your SoC's header file.  The ACPI_* macros are defined in
+``src/arch/x86/include/arch/acpi_device.h``.
+
+Using a GPIO as an IRQ requires that it is configured in coreboot correctly.
+This is often done in a mainboard-specific file named ``gpio.c``.
+
+### wake
+
+The last register is:
+
+```
+    register "wake" = "GPE0_DW0_21"
+```
+
+which indicates that the method of waking the system using the touchpad will be
+through a GPE, #21 associated with DW0, which is set up in devicetree.cb from
+this example.  The "21" indicates GPP_X21, where GPP_X is mapped onto DW0
+elsewhere in the devicetree.
+
+The last bit of the definition of that device includes:
+
+```
+    device i2c 15 on end
+```
+
+which means it's an I2C device, with 7-bit address 0x15, and the device is "on",
+meaning it will be exposed in the ACPI table.  The PCI device that the
+controller is located in determines which I2C bus the device is expected to be
+found on.  In this example, this is I2C bus 0.  This also determines the ACPI
+"Scope" that the device names and methods will live under, in this case
+"\_SB.PCI0.I2C0".
+
+## Other auto-generated names
+
+(see [ACPI specification
+6.3](https://uefi.org/sites/default/files/resources/ACPI_6_3_final_Jan30.pdf)
+for more details on ACPI methods)
+
+### _S0W (S0 Device Wake State)
+_S0W indicates the deepest S0 sleep state this device can wake itself from,
+which in this case is 4, representing _D3cold_.
+
+### _PRW (Power Resources for Wake)
+_PRW indicates the power resources and events required for wake.  There are no
+dependent power resources, but the GPE (GPE0_DW0_21) is mentioned here (0x15),
+as well as the deepest sleep state supporting waking the system (3), which is
+S3.
+
+### _STA (Status)
+The _STA method is generated automatically, and its values, 0xF, indicates the
+following:
+
+    Bit [0] – Set if the device is present.
+    Bit [1] – Set if the device is enabled and decoding its resources.
+    Bit [2] – Set if the device should be shown in the UI.
+    Bit [3] – Set if the device is functioning properly (cleared if device failed its diagnostics).
+
+### _CRS (Current resource settings)
+The _CRS method is generated automatically, as the driver knows it is an I2C
+controller, and so specifies how to configure the controller for proper
+operation with the touchpad.
+
+```
+Name (_CRS, ResourceTemplate ()  // _CRS: Current Resource Settings
+{
+    I2cSerialBusV2 (0x0015, ControllerInitiated, 400000,
+                    AddressingMode7Bit, "\\_SB.PCI0.I2C0",
+                    0x00, ResourceConsumer, , Exclusive, )
+```
+
+## Notes
+
+ - **All fields that are left unspecified in the devicetree are initialized to
+   zero.**
+ - **All devices in devicetrees end up in the SSDT table, and are generated in
+   coreboot's ramstage**
diff --git a/Documentation/index.md b/Documentation/index.md
index a2c2878..50141b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/index.md
+++ b/Documentation/index.md
@@ -172,6 +172,7 @@
 * [Intel IFD Binary Extraction](Binary_Extraction.md)
 * [Dealing with Untrusted Input in SMM](technotes/2017-02-dealing-with-untrusted-input-in-smm.md)
 * [GPIO toggling in ACPI AML](acpi/gpio.md)
+* [Adding devices to a device tree](acpi/devicetree.md)
 * [Native Graphics Initialization with libgfxinit](gfx/libgfxinit.md)
 * [Display panel-specific documentation](gfx/display-panel.md)
 * [Architecture-specific documentation](arch/index.md)